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International student enrollments at Swat rise while national numbers fall

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An Open Doors Report Survey done by the Institute of International Education showed that the number of new international students enrolled at higher education institutions in the U.S. decreased for the first time in six years by 3.3 percent, in part due to the new policies by the Trump administration. While there has been a trend of international student applications and enrollments stagnating and declining recently, the college’s numbers have done the opposite, according to Jim Bock ’90, vice president and dean of admissions.

“At Swarthmore, we have experienced a 39 percent increase in international applications over the last four years,” Bock wrote in an email.  “We have increased admissions slightly each year, and we have seen the number of matriculated international students increase about 8 percent over the same time.”

According to Bock, the increase in international applications at the college in contrast with national trends has been a result of the admissions office’s efforts to reach a wider platform and make applying to Swarthmore more accessible.

“We have done a better job of reaching a broader population with our print, email, and social media campaigns, and we have provided fee waivers to deserving students,” Bock said. “More broadly, there is a leveling off of the number of high school graduates on a national level, but those applying to selective schools are taking advantage of technology and submitting more applications to more schools.”

While the national statistics report a decline in international enrollments that are not reflected in the college’s enrollment numbers, the results of the survey highlight concerns of international students that apply to students at Swarthmore. Jennifer Marks-Gold, Director of International Student Services, discussed what her office does in order to support incoming and current international students who face the challenges that the survey reports.

According to Marks-Gold, the challenges discouraging people from applying to Swarthmore have generally not had a significant effect on international students at the college at this point because of the support provided. For instance, everyone who applied for visas in the class of 2021 was able to get them.

“I don’t think it has affected Swarthmore [applications] at this point,” she said.

The international students in the class of 2021 were in a unique position of deciding to go to a higher education institution in the U.S. as the new administration was putting in place its immigration policy.

Nana Quakyi ’21 is an international student who was in the process of deciding to go to a university in the U.S. when the current administration was coming into power.

“I was looking at how the administration’s immigration policy would affect how easy it was for me to move between Ghana and the States, and how policies would extend beyond immigration and affect academic or financial support for international students,” Quakyi said. “The new administration and its own set of policies did raise a few concerns for me.”

According to Quakyi, the new administration and its rhetoric on immigration raised concerns but did not do much in terms of swaying his decision to study in the U.S.. He also feels that  the Office of International Student Services is both helpful and reassuring.

“Jennifer Marks-Gold and her office, through a lot of what has been going on, have provided a lot of support and options for students who have been affected by what’s been happening nationally policy-wise,” he said. “Having her around definitely gives most international students a greater sense of security since she’s ready and willing to help out.”

In the Open Doors survey, university officials reported that the social and political climate in the U.S. especially in regards to immigration policy, the cost of education, visa denial/delays, and changes to scholarship programs in other countries have contributed to the decline in new international student enrollments. According to Marks-Gold, the changes in the vetting process and overall attitude towards immigration policy by the current administration have increased stress for international students in terms of obtaining visas.

“I think being a visitor adds an extra burden and stress on a student studying in a different country,” said Marks-Gold. “There is more of a worry now with thinking about the future and getting F1 or H-1B visas.”

Francisco Veron Ferreira ’19, an international student from Paraguay, chose to go to school in the U.S. after considering the U.K. He commented on the policy changes and new vetting process, which he feels will make it more difficult for students to stay and work in the U.S.

“It’s going to be harder for students who maybe want to pursue an H-1B visa or want to apply for grad school,” he said. “I would like to stay in the U.S. after graduating.”

While vetting and policy are causing students to worry about working in the U.S. after graduation, there is also concern that student visas will be negatively be affected. With the more recent changes in the vetting process, Marks-Gold is prioritizing enforcing deadlines for students to submit forms so that she can have enough time to work around any potential problems or delays with getting a student proper documentation.

“I guess the changes made by the U.S. administration have been scaring me a little bit,” she said. “I would like to get forms from students as early as possible just in case they get held up in administrative processing.”

On Marks-Gold’s invitation, immigration lawyer David Nachman spoke to a group of international students on Tuesday. Nachman discussed the pathways to stay and work in the U.S. available to international students and how the Trump administration has attempted to alter those pathways.

“What I tell you tonight, you’ll know more than the president does about immigration law,” Nachman said in his presentation.

In an interview with the Phoenix after his presentation, Nachman spoke more about how immigration policy and travel bans have affected students and international student officers at educational institutions.

“Well, I think that a lot of students fear that the international student officers may grant them I-20s and then find out that they are not necessarily going to be granted visas,” he said. “We’ve received an increase in the number of calls from international student officers who are gravely concerned that they may grant these I-20s that have gone to administrative processing and they’re just being held there.”

According to Nachman, the policy and rhetoric by the Trump administration concerning immigration is pushing away potential international students, who are instead going to places like Australia, Japan, and Canada.

“Immigration in the U.S. is too tight; why fight an uphill battle when you can go to other countries?” he said. “The U.S. is losing globally if we send people to other countries. Maybe we don’t feel it now, but in six years from now we’re definitely going to feel it.”

Nachman’s remark that the loss of international students in the U.S. is harmful to the country as a whole is also applicable to higher education institutions.

Marks-Gold remarked how important international students are to universities. She commented that the diversity within the international student population at Swarthmore prevented the number of international students from changing significantly.

“There are universities that take most of their international students from China, for instance. Swarthmore doesn’t do that, and I think that our diversity of international students is not only good for the students here, but also helped with keeping our numbers of international students stable,” she said.

While the college’s number of new international student enrollments don’t reflect the national trend to date, the current administration’s immigration policy still affects the international student population at the college. However, while policy changes persist, the college has systems set in place to allow for international students to continue their education in the U.S.

W course for int’l students has promise

in Columns/Op-Eds/Opinions by

Several weeks ago, I received an e-mail inviting all international students to meet with Dr. Natalie Mera Ford, who currently serves as a Swarthmore’s Multilingual Writing Specialist. As an international student, I was interested in how college-level writing in the US differ from that in other countries, especially here at Swarthmore where every student must take at least three writing courses in two distinct disciplines in order to graduate. Moreover, because most of my professors had yet assigned any major essay (an indication that they soon would), I believed it would be useful to know beforehand the challenges international students often face while attuning their writing skills to the level expected at Swarthmore. Therefore, I attended the session and was surprised: some international students did not have trouble with their writing skill or their writing fluency as much as with the academic writing norms to which they have no prior exposure.  

Before addressing anything further, I would like to define two terms pertinent to our discussion: writing skill and writing fluency. This article defines writing skill as the ability to formulate a grammatically correct sentence. The greater one’s writing skill is, the fewer grammatical mistakes one makes while conveying an idea. Standardized English exams evaluate students primarily on this area. On the other hand, writing fluency refers to how natural one feels while crafting sentences with appropriate syntax and word choice. Indeed, all fluent writers make minor grammatical mistakes once in awhile, but we would still call those writers fluent if those grammatical mistakes do not significantly interfere with the message they wish to convey. Hence, writing skill does not correlate with writing fluency. With these definitions established, I will explain why writing skill and writing fluency do not trouble international students at Swarthmore as much as some may assume.

First, because the admission process at Swarthmore is extremely selective, it is highly unlikely that non-proficient English users could enter the institution. To elaborate, Swarthmore tests its applicants’ English proficiency on several instances before offering them an acceptance letter. Numerically, applicants demonstrate their English skill through their GPA and their standardized test scores (e.g. SAT, ACT, TOEFL, and so on). Pragmatically, they demonstrate how fluent they are as an English writer through their personal essays via Common Application. On top of that, some applicants may be interviewed by Swarthmore admission in English. These rigorous admission process applies to all students at Swarthmore, domestic or international.

Therefore, we could assume that international students have an English proficiency equivalent to that level of native English speakers.

Second, the learning environment at Swarthmore is conducive to the development of English skill. At the most superficial level, all classes except foreign language are conducted in English at Swarthmore. Every day, students read texts in English, listen to lectures in English, and complete the homework their professors assigned in English. At the more meaningful level, we analyze, criticize, and synthesize every claim we come across as we embrace the spirit of liberal arts education, all in English. In other words, because the amount of reading, listening, and speaking in English required in this institution is tremendous, every Swarthmore student develops their writing skill, their writing fluency, and other areas of English proficiency as a result. Thus, even if you do not buy into the argument set forth in the previous paragraph and still believe international students are somewhat less proficient than native English users, the gap between the former and the latter will eventually diminish thanks to Swarthmore education.

However, based on the conversation I had with my international friends, Dr. Mera Ford, and people who worked closely with international students, the consensus is that even though a significant number of international students believe they are proficient in English, they do not feel confident in their writing ability as much as they should. As mentioned earlier, such lack of confidence arises because some of the international students do not know how Swarthmore professors expect them to write. Although this problem applies to other student populations as it affects international students in particular: the latter may internalize the blame, believing they struggle because of their inferior writing ability even though such explanation is untrue. Culture significantly affects how one writes. This article will now provide several examples to support the claim and put forth some possible solutions.

To begin, the first major problem is that, whereas the writing at Swarthmore emphasizes content and clarity, the writing style with which some international students are familiar focuses on the beauty of the language. My experience in Thai education system warrants this claim. In Thailand, students learn Thai as their first language. By the age of six, the age they presumably have a solid foundation in Thai language, they will start studying English. English, therefore, is not a first language for the majority of Thai students. To determine how knowledgeable each student is in English and reduce the potential gap in knowledge, Thai teachers focus upon the language usage in an essay rather than the content. Thai education, in essence, values big words over small words, indirect over direct communication, and rhetorical beauty over logical clarity. In contrast, to write well in American settings, one must be as clear and concise as possible. I, along with many international students I know, struggle tremendously while transitioning from the former writing style to the latter. In essence, such difference in writing culture between the United States and other countries cause some international students to focus more on the language and less on the content, which is contrary to what Swarthmore professors prefer.

Another major problem regarding the expected norm of writing is citation. In some countries, citation is not expected. Rarely are students in those countries penalized for failing to cite properly. The opposite applies to the United States: one could face a serious academic probation from failing to cite oneself, let alone other authors. One of my international friends once told me that she felt awkward every time she cited because citation is not “a thing” in her country. To exacerbate this issue, because there exist so many citation formats (e.g. MLA, APA, Chicago, etc.), chances are students unfamiliar to the citation culture forget to cite or fail to cite properly. Indeed, neither forgetting to cite nor failing to cite properly indicates how skillful or fluent one’s writing proficiency is. Rather, they reflect how cultural difference could potentially impact international students’ ability to write.

Lastly, the last problem pertains to the extent to which Swarthmore students use the writing resources Swarthmore offers. To answer this question, I created a survey with several questions regarding each student’s writing experience from “How confident are you in your writing skills?” to “What are your writing background prior to entering Swarthmore?” To make pertinent to our discussion, only the data gathered from surveys international students complete will be reported in this article.

One of the survey questions asks students to describe how content they feel towards the writing resources Swarthmore offers on the scale of 1 to 5 (1 = Not at all, 5 = Nothing to complain). Another asks how often they use those resources through similar scale (1 = Never use them, 5 = Use them whenever I could). Interestingly, eleven responses to the first question fall between 3 to 5, which means they believe Swarthmore, at the very least, provides sufficient resources on writing. However, when asked how often they use those resources, six responses fall either into 1 or 2, indicating that half of the surveyed students barely, if never at all, utilize those resources. Some justification include: “I procrastinate to the last minute, so I don’t have enough time to visit any WAs”; “I feel no need to use it”; “I am simply too busy.” Even more interestingly, for students who have taken or are taking a writing class, more than half believe the taking writing course does not help improve their writing skill as much as they had initially expected. Few even argue the non-writing courses they have taken improve their writing skill and fluency more than the W-accredited courses. Also, whereas two-thirds struggle with expressing ideas clearly and citing properly, virtually every student has problem with spending too much time on writing.

Overall, even though this survey by no means represents the general consensus among international students because of its small sample size, we still learn that some students know the writing resources exist but do not use them for several reasons. Common struggles among international students include spending too much time on writing, expressing ideas clearly, and citing properly, with the last two pertaining specifically to international students. How should we solve these problems?qqq

First, every class should make explicit what style of writing the class expects every of its students to adopt: if students worry less about how to write, they could devote more time into thinking what to write. Second, Swarthmore should provide sessions on citation, plagiarism, and basic writing processes, and so forth to all students who are interested. Indeed, because not every student who struggles with writing could take the Transition to College writing class, it is essential that these sessions be provided early so that the struggling students could fix whatever problems they may have with writing before taking more advanced, writing-heavy courses. Lastly, students and Writing Center should reach out to one another more. Perhaps, if the Writing Center has more flexible operating hours, students will be encouraged to use the center more. Writing is difficult. Addressing these issues will make writing way easier.  

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